Tissue and radio-protective effects of ginger
Many extracts and fractions of Z. officinale have been known to protect against chemically-induced tissue damages. For instance, it has been shown by two researchers, Yemitan and Izegbu that pretreatment of mice with an ethanol extract of the rhizome of Z. officinale and oil extracted from the plant were successful in ameliorating paracetamol-induced acute hepatotoxicity or carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen. The radioprotective property of the hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome was under research in mice given the extract at an intraperitoneal dose of 10 mg/kg, once daily for five consecutive days before exposure to 6–12 Gy of gamma radiation, and were monitored every day to 1 full month post-irradiation for the development of signs of radiation sickness and mortality.Ginger protection in ginger rhizome against radiation lethality was confirmed by the authors of similar studies in a subsequent publication. Pretreatment of mice lowered the high rate of radiation sickness,the mortality, and protection of mice from gastrointestinal as well as bone marrow syndrome.The dose reduction factor for Ginger rhizome was found to be 1.15. The optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg Ginger rhizome was 1/50 of the LD50 in500 mg/kg.It has been shown that ginger extract mitigates the neuro-behavioral impacts of gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion in Sprague–Dawley mice.
The total management of the extract 1 h prior to 2-Gy gamma irradiation was positive in blocking the saccharin avoidance response for five post-treatment observational days, both in a dose- and time-dependent condition,with 200 mg/kg b.w., i.p., being the most effective dose.Recently, a special group of scientists investigated the role of a ginger hydroalcoholic extract as a gastroprotective agent in radiation-induced taste aversion (CTA) learning and emesis in mice, and shown that the extract had succeeded in protecting the mice against CTA to a rate comparable to the standard anti-emetic drugs ondasterone and dexamethasone.The ways of this gastro-protection have been suggested to be multifactorial that encompasses anti-oxidant, neuromodulatory and radioprotective mechanisms and finally concluded that ginger may be a pharmacological agent that can safely and effectively mitigate the early damage produced in cells and tissues by ionization.
Anti-oxidant effects of ginger
Many scientific journals has shown that ginger is endowed with strong in vitro and in vivo anti-oxidant characterstics. The antioxidant effects of ginger has been taken the major major possible mechanism for the protection of the plant against toxicity and lethality of radiation and a number of toxic agents such as carbon tetrachloride and cisplatin and as an anti-ulcer drug. Recently, it has been shown that -gingerol is endowed with powerful anti-oxidant effects of ginger both in vivo and in vitro, in addition to strong anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities .This makes ginger to be very effective agent for prevention of ultra violet B (UVB)-induced reactive oxygen species production and COX-2 expression, and a likely systematic therapeutic agent against UVB-induced skin disorders.