Ginger for breast cancer is the most powerful medicine in the traditional health sector but nowadays it becomes the priority in the modern medicine.Based on the National Cancer Institute of the  National Institute of Health, breast cancer is a type of cancer which is developed  in breast tissues, mainly on the milk carrier ducts and lobules (milk producers). Even though breast cancer is rare in men, it occurs both in male and female.Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer in women which results high rate of mortality .Breast cancer cells are made up of cancer stem cells (CSCs), that represents only 5% of the overall cancer cells, yet it is the major factor for continuous proliferation and growth. Due to the powerful metastatic characteristics, cancer cells spread to major parts of the body.The rate of breast cancer on females living in the developed countries is more than 3 times higher than the developing country females.

Ginger for Breast Cancer Inhibition Researches

 

 Ginger for breast cancer control and prevention

 Figure One:Breast parts which can be affected by cancerous cells

The main causes of cancer are westernized diet, low physical activity, alcohol, smoking and related drugs. There are various drugs that have been introduced to treat breast cancer. The problem related with the drugs provided is, their side effects to non-tumoral tissues.Some of the cancer drugs used in breast cancer cases are 4-hydroxycyclo phospamide,Carboplatin,Docetaxel,Paclitaxel Vinorelbine Epirubicin Doxorubicin GemcitacbineAnastrazole LetrozoleTamoxifenRaloxifen Trastuzumabetc.The side effects of these drugs and therapy modes are listed as follows

 

  1. Fractures of breast bone
 
  1. Pain in heart muscles
 
  1. Radiation pneumonitis
 
  1. Effect on heart
  2. Risk of cancer
  3. Swelling of breast
  4. Fatigue
  5. Cardiac weakness
  6. Hair loss
 
 
 
10. Anemia,Nausea,Vomiting11. Stroke,blood clots,uterine cancer12. Menstrual problems13. Leukemia14. Heart failure15. Cognitive dysfunction

 Natural compounds and similar dietary agents have been used as an important tool to treat breast cancer since it has low cytotoxicity with minor side effects. Ginger,because of its aroma and taste, has been used for culinary purposes from ages. The medicinal purpose of ginger is dated back 2500 years and it is still used in Japan, China and Minor Asia as a treatment for cancerous cells.Since ginger is rich in bio active compounds a number of researches have been carried out to explore the beneficial property of ginger and its extracts. Ginger for breast cancer  in oil form have essential functional compounds, such as terpenes; monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, which is the basic biological activity accelerators in oil formation.The bioactive compounds found in these complex can either remain unmodified or undergo metabolic transformation into active or inactive derivatives and to fully understand the potential of ginger for breast cancer  in human health requires an understanding of the effect of bio active compounds in different regulatory mechanism from molecular and cellular level.Therefore the major roles of ginger oil in defending breast cancer are shortly listed as follows:

 

v According to Bendaoud and others 2010 research,basic complementary oils found in  berries likeSchinusmolle L. and Schinusterebinliflious have been shown to have anti-cancer properties against cancer cells including breast cancer, and some of these compounds were similar to the one found in ginger oil like, germacrene D, terpinoid, pinene, phellandrene, cymene, terpineol and α-himachalene. This shows that ginger oil properties against cancer are due to the presence of all these bio active molecules.

v Based on Jeong and others 2009Literatures suggest that [6]-gingerol, the main ginger compound is able to inhibit growth and proliferation of colon cancer cells at a concentration of 100μM/L. Similar study shows that after 72 h incubation of [6]-gingerol in colorectal cancer cell, the rate of cancerous cell growth was lowered by 22% and 28% with 150μM and 200μM [6]-gingerol respectively. It is also reduced in CaCo2 and HT-29 cells by 8% and 28% respectively

v G2 phase and S phase of normal cell cycle activity is increased by ginger oil activity in human body cells. G2 phase of the cycle implied that the control had around 16% cells, 0.05% GO treated cells had  around 21% cells, and 0.1% GO treated cells had around 18% cells.Hence,Ginger Oil alters Breast Cancer Cell Cycle Progression and Cell Cycle Regulatory Protein Expression that results low rate of cancerous cells growth.

v TNF-α was primarily discovered as a molecule responsible for anti tumor activity, yet recent studies have proved that this molecule facilitates tumor initiation, promotion, and metastasis which is the growth factor for most of the tumors including breast cancer.Ginger oil causes this TNF- α to minimize the production and spread throughout the cancerous cells. Researches show that as little as 0.1% of ginger oil reduces the geometric growth of these compound.

v A compound called Telomerase is found to be active in cancer cells and dormant in normal cells. Telomerase gives cancer cells its property of immortality and increasesthe malignancy and aggressive nature of cancer. Therefore, telomerase has been a potential target against cancer.Only 0.05% and 0.1% ginger oil could significantly inhibit telomerase expression by 21 % and 49% respectively in compare with the control.

v Ginger Oil induced apoptosis with the increase in caspase activity, cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and increase in the level of sub-G1 phase.

v Ginger oil also crucially reduced the expression of many oncoproteins and repressed the activity of telomerase that are expressed in breast cancer cells.

v Ginger oil also lowered protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk-4 and Bcl-2 level while it increased the level of apoptotic proteins such as Bax.

Hence, ginger for breast cancer in oil form  is essential with various anti-cancer properties.As a recommendation,ginger oil is very good if we include in our daily diets for a better future!

 

 

 

References

 

ü  Aggarwal BB &Shishodia S. 2004. Suppression of the Nuclear Factor-κB Activation Pathway by Spice-Derived Phytochemicals: Reasoning for Seasoning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1030(1):434-441.

ü  Aggarwal BB &Shishodia S. 2006. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochemical Pharmacology 71(10):1397-1421.

ü  Bendaoud H, Romdhane M, Souchard JP, Cazaux S &Bouajila J. 2010. Chemical Composition and Anticancer and Antioxidant Activities of SchinusMolle L. and SchinusTerebinthifoliusRaddi Berries Essential Oils. Journal of Food Science 75(6):C466-C472.

ü  Budihardjo I, Oliver H, Lutter M, Luo X & Wang X. 1999. Biochemical pathways of caspase activation during apoptosis. Annu Rev Cell DevBiol 15:269-290.

ü  Park EJ &Pezzuto JM. 2002. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev 21(3-4):231-255.

ü Ginger for breast cancer: Paulovich AG & Hartwell LH. 1995. A checkpoint regulates the rate of progression through S phase in S. cerevisiae in response to DNA damage. Cell 82(5):841-847.

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